Skip Navigation Links
Home > Resources >SPELLING TIPS


SPELLING TIPS

These letters are vowels:
a e i o u and sometimes y (at the end of words or syllables, as in monkey and sky).

These letters are consonants:

b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v w x z and sometimes y (at the beginning of words, as in yes and yellow).

TIP 1
If a word ends in s, ch, sh, or x, add es instead of s to make the plural or the present tense.

Examples:

box boxes
church churches
miss he/ she/ it misses
catch he / she / it catches
push he / she / it pushes

 


TIP 2
If a word ends in y with a consonant before it, change the y to i and add es instead of s to make the plural of nouns or the present tense of verbs. Also change the y to i before adding er, est, or ly to adjectives

Examples:

  • nouns

    sky skies
    body bodies

     

  • verbs

    fly he / she / it flies
    cry he / she / it cries

     

     

  • adjectives

    pretty prettier, prettiest; prettily
    heavy heavier, heaviest; heavily

     


But if a vowel comes before the y, keep the y and just add s.

Examples:

day days
monkey monkeys
play plays
buy buys


TIP 3
If a verb ends in ie, change ie to y before you add ing.

Examples:

lie lying
die dying


TIP 4
In short words, if the word ends in one vowel and one consonant (but not w), double the consonant before you add ed, ing, er or est. This keeps the vowel sound “short”.

Examples:

drop (ends in one vowel and one consonant)
drop + ed drop + p + ed dropped
(double the consonant before ed)

drop (ends in one vowel and one consonant)
drop + ing drop + p + ing dropping
(double the consonant before ing)

thin (ends in one vowel and one consonant)
thin + er thin + n + er thinner
(double the consonant before er)

fat (ends in one vowel and one consonant)
fat + est fat + t + est fattest
(double the consonant before est)


but note:

flow (ends in one vowel and w)
flow + ed flowed
flow + ing flowing

This rule sometimes does not apply to words of two or more syllables (parts). Check a dictionary if you are not sure.


TIP 5

In words that end in a silent e (e that is not pronounced), drop the e before you add –ed or –ing. This keeps the vowel sound “long”.

Example:

arrive (ends in silent e)
arrive + ed arriv + ed arrived
(drop the e before -ed)

arrive (ends in silent e)
arrive + ed arriv + ing arriving
(drop the e before –ing)


See also Verb Tenses and Irregular Verbs.
 
 
Number of visitors : 67925
Copyright © 2017 The Egyptian International Publishing Company - Longman.
All rights reserved. No part of this site may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic or otherwise, without prior permission.